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Jaundice in Cats Symptoms, Causes and Treatments

jaundice in cats
jaundice in cats

Jaundice is a yellow discoloration of the cat’s skin, eyes, ear flaps, gums, and foot pads, which veterinarians explain to cat owners. Jaundice is a symptom of a serious sickness since it indicates a high quantity of bilirubin in the blood.

If the excessive amount of yellow pigment due to bilirubin builds up in a cat’s blood as well as organs, it triggers jaundice. The more jaundice, also known as “icterus,” a cat gets, the more yellow its skin, eyes, and body tissues appear to be. Since the majority of cats’ bodies are covered with hair pet owners and veterinarians are able to detect jaundice when taking a look at the cat’s eye, gums, feet pads, and the flaps of its ears. Jaundice will be difficult to detect in cats with black skin or gums. Jaundice is frequently a sign of something more serious.

Jaundice in Cats: Symptoms

Because jaundice is one of several symptoms of serious illness, vigilant cat owners can help their pets by recognizing these warning signals, which include:

Appetite loss or anorexia
Yellowed skin, eyes, or other parts of the body
Abdomen that is rounded
Uncomfortable stomach
a shabby, rough coat
Grooming issues
Long-term bleeding
Unusual actions
Breathing problems
Urine that is bright orange in color.
Thirst increases
Urination is becoming more frequent.

Jaundice in Cats: What Causes It?

Jaundice develops in cats as a result of a variety of internal issues. Treatments for jaundice will change depending on the cause.

Red blood cell destruction (hemolysis)
Obstruction of the bile duct. The gallbladder or bile ducts may become inflamed, causing bile to thicken.
Parasites of the blood
Hepatocellular enlargement
Infection caused by a virus or bacterium
Exposure to chemicals (leads to toxic hepatopathy)
Pancreatic carcinoma
Gallbladder cancer
Lipidosis of the liver (fatty liver)
Amyloidosis of the liver (accumulated amyloid in the liver)
Infectious peritonitis in cats (a fatal illness)

Jaundice in Cats Diagnosis

If pet owners inform their veterinarians that they think the cat may have jaundice, the vet will conduct a physical exam and note down the observations and then order further tests. The veterinarian examines the exposed skin regions of the cat’s body first. They order extra diagnostic tests, which may include blood work, if they notice jaundice.

A complete blood count, or CBC, is part of this blood test. This test determines the number of platelets, white blood cells, and red blood cells in the cat’s blood. Labs use the packed cell volume, or PCV, in addition to the CBC. This shows the veterinarian how many red blood cells are present in the blood. If the cat is anemic, the veterinarian looks to see if the cat has hemolysis (destruction of red blood cells). They’ll also examine the cat’s blood under a microscope to see if it has aberrant red blood cells, immature red blood cells, or an unusual clump of cells.

If the vet discovers that the cat has not been treated for heartworms and that it is an outdoor cat, they may suspect a heartworm infestation. If other symptoms, such as excessive thirst, drinking, and urine, are present, the veterinarian will want to examine the cat’s liver and kidneys.

Urinalysis and a biochemical profile are two further diagnostic procedures that may be used. These tests search for alterations in blood cells, anemia, bilirubin in the urine, and urine concentration, among other things.

The vet may order X-rays or an ultrasound, a liver biopsy, a Coombs test (to see if the cat’s immune system is destroying red blood cells), or serologic tests to see if the cat has feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), toxoplasmosis, or feline leukemia virus, depending on the early findings (FeLV).

Treatment for Cats with Jaundice:

Jaundice is not treated by veterinarians on its own. Once the reason of a cat’s jaundice is identified, the disease is treated, and the jaundice ultimately goes away. For example, if the cat has a viral or bacterial infection, the veterinarian may give antibiotics or steroids to help the cat’s immune system cope with the bacteria or virus. Supportive care will be offered to cats identified with FIV or FeLV, allowing their immune systems to cope with the virus.

If the cat has consumed poison, the vet will administer activated charcoal to help the cat eliminate the toxins from its system. Vomiting may be induced by the veterinarian. The cat will give high-quality nutritional assistance for the cat with hepatic lipidosis (fatty liver), consisting of a high-protein, high-calorie food.

The cat will have surgery and treatment if the vet diagnoses liver cancer. If the biliary tract is obstructed, the cat will need surgery to clear the obstruction.

Corticosteroids are administered to cats with hepatitis to minimize liver inflammation. Pain meds will be provided to the cat if it is in pain. The veterinarian may administer SAMe (S-adenosylmethionine), which supports the liver by increasing glutathione, an antioxidant. Ursodeoxycholic acid is an example of a nutritional supplement. Vitamin K or Silybin, which supports liver function, may also be given to the cat. This antioxidant aids the liver’s detoxification process by removing poisons and medications. Blood transfusions are given to cats that are anemic

Jaundice in Cats Recovery

Depending on the source of the jaundice of the cat, the cat’s owner could be offered an accurate prognosis, or warned that the cat’s disease could be fatal or terminal for example, when it is the case with feline infectious peritonitis.

Many cats can live for many more years once the vet determines the exact source of the cat’s jaundice and establishes an efficient treatment plan. Cat owners must give their cats their prescribed drugs on a regular basis and eat just the foods that are advised, which aids in the cat’s recuperation. The reasons for jaundice can be successfully treated by providing high-quality foods and taking drugs as directed.

Why do Dogs Like Bones

why dogs like bones
why dogs like bones

You may have noticed your dog’s near-euphoria when you offer them a bone; a naked, no-meat-on-it bone. What is the reason for this? They appear to be difficult, if not painful, to eat, have little or no nutritional value, and don’t taste particularly good. Can they, or can they not? There’s a lot more to bones than we think, and they’ve always been a good source of minerals and fat. Dogs have specially designed teeth and powerful jaw muscles to tear through even the toughest bones, and they may even enjoy the cerebral stimulation and exercise that chewing on bones brings. So it’s possible that there’s more to that joyful sensation than we know.

Whay Do Dogs Like Bones?

Dogs are fond of bones for a variety of reasons. To begin with, any meat fragments left on the bone, as well as the bone marrow inside, are both nutritious and delicious. Second, chewing on bones stimulates the mind, strengthens the jaw muscles, and is a natural technique to remove plaque and tartar from teeth while massaging the gums.

To you and me, a bone may not appear to be a delicacy, but for dogs, it can taste almost as good as the steak or roast from whence it came. Let’s dig a little deeper into the reasons why dogs enjoy bones.

1. Meat scraps

Even the most meticulous butchers will struggle to remove all of the little fragments of meat off a bone. The effort is well worth it for your dog, as is the reward of a few little bits of fresh meat.

2. Bone marrow

Bone marrow is the equivalent of a Snickers bar in the dog world. Because bone marrow is heavy in fat, it is prized for its flavor and nutritional value. For malnourished animals, eating bone marrow can mean the difference between life and death. Bone marrow isn’t the only part of the bone that tastes good. Fat, which acts as a glue to hold minerals like calcium and phosphorus together, can be found in the boney structure.

3. Endorphins

Mother Nature has a fascinating way of working. Chewing boosts the release of endorphins in dogs, which is one of these ways. Endorphins, as we all know, make us feel good and are responsible for the so-called “Runner’s High” we get after exercising. But why is it so vital for dogs to chew? As previously stated, bone marrow is a rich source of fat and one of the last fat reserves to be depleted when an animal is starved. When faced with poor quality prey, wild dogs often rely on bone marrow as a significant source of energy, despite the fact that it is more difficult to obtain. dogs enjoy chewing, so they are more likely to do it and so get the delecious bone marrow when it’s needed. However, just because your dog isn’t hungry doesn’t mean they don’t want to enjoy the natural high that comes from chewing.

4. Providing mental stimulation

Because most of our dogs don’t have a 9-5 job, they need to do something productive throughout the day while we’re gone, or they’ll become disruptive. Gnawing on bones can be a very stimulating experience for them. Apart from the endorphin rush that comes with chewing, dogs may also enjoy the problem-solving abilities required to extract the last piece of meat or bone marrow off the bone.

5. Cleans the teeth

Chewing on a bone is equivalent to using a dental descaler on your dog’s teeth. Gnawing and chewing on a bone’s rough surface can really scrape away at stubborn tartar and plaque while soothing and stimulating gums.

Do all dogs enjoy chewing on bones?

You may have observed that all of these reasons are non-specific to a dog’s breed or size now that you’ve seen the reasons why dogs like bones. So, whether your bone is small, large, or somewhere in between, it’s safe to conclude that all dogs enjoy chomping on bones. Having saying that, each dog is unique. We’ve all had that one dog who was a bit of an oddball and didn’t seem to enjoy the usual dog activities. Some dogs dislike bones, while others believe bones hang the moon.

Those pups who have suffered an accident or disease as a result of nibbling on a dog bone are likely to be wary. Others, on the other hand, may prefer the taste of their chewing toy.

Are Bones Beneficial to Dogs?

You might be asking if bones are good for dogs now that you’ve heard that chewing on a bone might cause injury or disease. The answer, like with most things, is that it depends. Canines have chewed bones long before they became a part of our existence, therefore there must be a reason for it. Animals are remarkably skilled at organically resolving the majority of their issues. Chewing bones, as previously mentioned, aids in the cleansing of teeth in between professional dental cleanings. The more you can do to keep your dog’s teeth and gums healthy, the better.

Chewing on bones isn’t just for cleaning your dog’s teeth; it’s also a fun exercise. Those who have a dog who suffers from separation anxiety or destructive boredom will appreciate this. It not only provides cerebral entertainment for your bored dog, but it also trains the jaw and face muscles, as well as the paws and legs, depending on how involved they become.


Dogs and bones are like peanut butter and jelly or peas in a pod when it comes to pairings. By now, you should have a clearer idea of why dogs enjoy bones. Dogs are attracted to bones for a variety of reasons, the majority of which can be traced back to their ancestors. With the correct tools and safeguards, you can help your dog develop this natural behavior safely so that he or she can enjoy the benefits of chewing bones without fear of damage or sickness.

How Cats See the world

how cats see the world
how cats see the world


Human and cat vision differ significantly when compared because of the retina, a layer of tissue at the back of the eye that contains cells known as photoreceptors. When comparing human and cat vision, the retina is the most significant distinction between the two. Light rays are converted into electrical impulses by photosensing cells in the retina, which are then processed by nerve cells and relayed to the brain, where they are interpreted as the images we see.

Rods and cones are the two types of photoreceptor cells that have been identified. It is the rods that are in charge of governing peripheral and night vision. They are capable of discriminating between different shades of gray and different levels of brightness and contrast. Cones are in charge of regulating day vision and color perception in the human eye.

Unlike other animals, cats (and dogs) have a large number of rod receptors and a small number of cone receptors, making them one of a kind in the animal kingdom. It is the polar opposite of this in humans, which explains why we are less adept at distinguishing colors at night while being more adept at identifying colors during the daytime.

As soon as the eyes are focused on a single point, the visual field encompasses the entire region that is visible in the immediate vicinity of that point. It encompasses all that can be seen straight ahead of you, as well as everything that can be seen above, below, and to the sides of your body. With a visual field of 200 degrees, cats have a field of vision that is somewhat greater than the normal human field of vision, which is 180 degrees. This is in comparison to the human vision field, which is 180 degrees wide.

In the medical field, the term “visual acuity” refers to the sharpness with which one’s eyesight can be seen. Visual acuity of 20/20 is the average human’s visual acuity. A cat’s visual acuity can range from 20/100 to a 20/200, depending on the breed. This means that a cat only has to be 20 feet away in order to see what an average human can see from 100 to 200 feet away in the same environment when the cat is 20 feet away. This is the reason why the image at the bottom of the page is so foggy and blurry in appearance.


The idea that cats can only see in shades of gray and are unable to distinguish between different hues is widely held among the public. Trichromats are individuals who have three different types of cones in their eyes, which allows them to see in three different colors: red, green, and blue. Trichromats are people who have three different types of cones in their eyes. This holds true for cats as well; they are trichromats, albeit not in the same way that humans are. The eyesight of a cat is quite comparable to the vision of a colorblind person in terms of color. When it comes to blue and green colors, they can tell the difference, but they may be confused by reds and pinks. These may appear to be a deeper shade of green in appearance, whereas purple may appear to be a deeper shade of blue in appearance.

When it comes to color saturation and richness, cats are unable to discern the same levels of intensity as we are.

A cat’s nearsightedness suggests that it has difficulties detecting items that are located at a distance. When hunting and capturing animals, being able to recognize nearby things would be extremely advantageous to the hunter.

Night vision:

Cats have better night vision than humans due to the fact that they have a bigger number of rods in their retina that are sensitive to low light levels than humans. Their vision in the dark is limited because they are unable to distinguish minute details or brilliant colors. As a result, cats are able to see with around one-sixth the amount of light that humans require.

In addition, the tapetum is present, which is a structure behind the retina that is thought to improve cats’ night vision by increasing contrast sensitivity, according to some researchers. It is believed that the tapetum’s cells operate as a mirror, reflecting light that passes between the rods and cones back to the photoreceptors, giving them a second chance to pick up the little quantity of light that is accessible during the nighttime. As a result, cats’ eyes are lighted when they are outside in the dark.

Roundworms in Dogs – Symptoms, Causes and Treatments

dog roundworms

In dogs, roundworms are a very frequent parasite. Almost every dog has roundworms at some point in their lives, most commonly when they are dogs.

-Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonine are the two main species of roundworms that infect dogs. Toxocara canis is a more dangerous parasite that can infect people.
-Toxocara canis, a canine roundworm, can grow to be several inches long. (Creative Commons/Joel Mills)

Adult roundworms reside in the intestines of dogs, feeding on partially digested food. Malnourishment can be caused by the worms, which is especially dangerous in a young puppy. Roundworms are particularly dangerous to puppies and young dogs because their immune systems have not fully matured and they are unable to fight off adult worms as effectively as an adult dog.

What causes roundworms in dogs?

1. From their mother.

Roundworms are quite prevalent in puppies, as the larvae are commonly transmitted from the mother right before birth or through nursing.

This is how it works: Unfortunately, the canine roundworm has developed a highly efficient method of reproduction. Even after a dog has been treated for roundworms and the adult worms have been removed, a number of dormant (“encysted”) larvae can remain in bodily tissues. These encysted roundworm larvae can lay dormant for the rest of a dog’s life, unless the dog is a female and becomes pregnant, in which case the larvae reactivate and are passed on to her puppies. Puppies can be infected while still inside their mother’s body or after birth through her milk. Even if the mother dog and puppies are exceptionally healthy and well-cared for, the puppies should be treated for roundworms (see below) from a young age. Pregnant dog owners should see their veterinarian about safe deworming therapy for the dam during pregnancy, which may limit transmission to the puppies.

During a dog’s pregnancy, reactivated larvae can linger in her body and make her unwell.

In adult male and female dogs with certain underlying health issues, encysted roundworms can develop to the adult form and cause illness.

2. From the environment. Puppies and dogs can get roundworms by inadvertently consuming eggs from the environment, which can be found in soil, on plants, or on other items.

As a result of consuming contaminated animals. Small creatures such as rats, earthworms, birds, and insects can also carry roundworm eggs. Because these animals aren’t the roundworm’s usual hosts, the egg never matures in these species—however, if a dog eats an infected animal, the egg can activate and grow into a roundworm once inside the dog.

Roundworm symptoms:

Although a dog can have roundworms and not show any symptoms, there are various signs and symptoms that come with a roundworm infection. Puppies are particularly vulnerable to roundworms.

-Malnourishment. Roundworms live in the intestines, depriving the puppy or dog of nutrients from his diet. As a result, indicators of malnutrition such as weakness, weight loss, and stunted growth might be evidence of a heavy roundworm infection.

-The appearance of a potbellied pig. When a case of roundworms goes untreated, the parasites multiply swiftly in the intestines and expand to the point where the puppy has a potbellied appearance due to the presence of several adult worms.

-Coughing. Coughing and other respiratory symptoms, as well as catastrophic illnesses such as pneumonia, can be caused by roundworm larvae migrating to the lungs.

-Diarrhea or vomiting Roundworms can cause stomach problems like vomiting and diarrhea. Diarrhea can be mild, moderate, or severe.

-Worms evident in stools or vomited up.

When a dog has roundworms, one or more of the worms may be seen in the dog’s vomit or faeces. Needless to say, seeing these big, pale-colored, spaghetti-like worms—sometimes still moving—can be extremely unsettling (and filthy). If this occurs, contact your veterinarian right away, explain what you witnessed, and schedule an appointment to bring your dog or puppy in for treatment as soon as possible.

(Rather than roundworms, microscopic rice-sized worms in your dog’s stool could be tapeworms, a parasite carried by fleas.) If you notice or suspect your dog is infected with a parasite, contact your veterinarian.


A fecal sample from your puppy or dog can be examined under a microscope for the presence of roundworm eggs on a prepared slide by your veterinarian. A fecal inspection like this is usually included in a puppy’s first vet visit.

If the roundworm infection isn’t severe, the feces sample may be devoid of eggs. Because roundworms are so frequent in puppies, experts advise assuming the presence of roundworms in early puppies and treating them every few weeks.

Treatment and prevention of roundworms:

-Your veterinarian can prescribe a high-quality dewormer that will eliminate the worms safely and effectively.
-Your veterinarian can prescribe a monthly heartworm medicine for your dog that also contains components to prevent and control roundworms.

Consult your veterinarian for expert advice on roundworms and any other concerns you may have about your puppy or dog’s health and well-being.

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